What is Web3 in Kenya
What is Web3 for Kenyans revealed. We tested the best Web3 guides for Kenyan Traders.
This is a complete guide to Web3 in Kenya.
In this in-depth guide you’ll learn:
- What is Web3?
- What is the difference between Web2 and Web3?
- Which companies use Web3?
- What is the Web3 Metaverse?
- Can you use Web3 as a beginner trader?
- Which brokers offer a sign-up bonus for first-time traders in Kenya?
- Which brokers offer a low minimum deposit of $5 (583 KES) to start trading?
And lots more…
So if you’re ready to go “all in” with the Web3 for Kenyan traders…
Let’s dive right in…
What is Web3 in Kenya (Updated 2022)
- What is Web3 in simple terms?
- The Birth and Growth of the Internet
- Where does Web3 fit in overall?
- What Kenyans should know about Web3 and the Metaverse
- Web3 and Cryptocurrencies
- The Advantages of Web3 against Web 2.0 and Web 1.0
- The purpose of DAOs in Web3
- What are Web3 Applications?
- Components of Web3 Explained for Kenyans
What is Web3 in simple terms?
👉 When Ethereum co-founder Gavin Wood invented the phrase “Web3” in 2014, he defined it as a “decentralized online ecosystem built on blockchain.”
👉 Although his description defines Web3 technically, the word also conjures up images of the revolutionary types of online interactions that such decentralized programs can offer. Web3 can refer to something exact and technological, but it can also refer to anything philosophical.
👉 Web3 is the name used to characterize the Internet’s “next level,” after Web 1.0 or HTML, or the “world wide web,” and Web 2.0, the current version of the Internet that includes social media and the user-generated Web.
The Birth and Growth of the Internet
👉 Web 1.0 refers to the first version of the Internet. Web 1.0 is the read-only or syntax Web. When he was employed at CERN, Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989.
👉 Soon after the emergence of the Internet, several static websites whose only purpose was to give information were built.
👉 Most participants were content consumers, whereas most content creators were web developers who created websites with textual or graphical content.
👉 Web 1.0 existed between 1991 and 2004. Web 1.0 sites supplied static content instead of dynamic hypertext markup language (HTML).
👉 Subsequently, data and content were sourced from a static file system instead of a database, and web pages had little interactivity.
👉 Web 2.0, often known as the social and interactive read-write Web, is the only version of the Internet most of us have ever experienced. Within Web 2.0, it is not necessary to have a background in development to participate in the creative process.
👉 Numerous applications are built so that anybody can become a developer. Web 2.0 also allows you to submit a video and make it accessible to millions of people to see, engage with, and comment on.
👉 Web 2.0 applications include social media such as YouTube, Facebook, Flickr, Instagram, and Twitter, among others.
👉 These technologies enable users to contribute more to the Social Web. Web 2.0 is designed around users, so developers just need to provide a method to empower and engage them.
👉 Consider how different Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, and YouTube were in their infancy compared to their current states. Typically, these businesses undergo the following procedure:
➡️ The organization releases an app.
➡️ It enlists as many individuals as feasible.
➡️ Then, it generates revenue from its user base.
👉 When a developer or company develops a successful app, the user experience is typically very refined, particularly as the app’s popularity increases. Therefore, they gained momentum so quickly in the beginning.
👉 Initially, many software companies are unconcerned about monetization. Instead, they are entirely concerned with acquiring and maintaining new customers, yet they must begin to generate a profit.
👉 Many of the apps that people use now might be better if they had access to more money. Still, the restrictions imposed by venture capitalists shorten their development cycles and, in the end, diminish their users’ experiences.
👉 When a company seeks venture financing to build an app, for instance, its backers often anticipate multiple times return on investment.
👉 This implies that the organization is usually driven down the marketing or data sales road rather than adopting a long-term growth plan that can be supported organically.
👉 More data implies more targeted advertisements for a variety of Web 2.0 businesses, including Google, Facebook, and Twitter, increasing clicks and ad revenue. Today’s Internet would not exist without the systematic abuse and centralization of user information.
👉 Consequently, data breaches are prevalent in Web 2.0 apps. Some websites monitor data breaches and alert users when their personal information has been compromised.
👉 With Web 2.0, you have no say over who sees or uses the information you provide. Firms regularly collect and store user information without their consent. The companies responsible for these platforms own and control all this data.
👉 In addition, governments routinely shut down servers or confiscate bank accounts when they suspect someone is expressing a viewpoint that opposes their propaganda. Governments may easily intervene, control, or shut down programs using centralized servers.
👉 Governments routinely meddle in banks since they are also digital and governed centrally. Nonetheless, they could suspend bank accounts or limit access to cash during extreme volatility, excessive inflation, or other political upheavals.
👉 Web 3.0 will solve many of these shortcomings by fundamentally rethinking how people develop and interact with apps from the bottom up.
👉 While the world still lives in the Web 2.0 era, there is a movement towards Web3, often known as the Semantic Web or the read-write-execute era.
👉 Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) will allow computers to interpret data like people do, facilitating intellectual development and disseminating useful information based on a user’s requirements.
👉 Decentralization is at the core of both Web 2.0 and Web 3.0, even though the former has a few fundamental differences from the latter.
👉 Instead, Web 3.0 applications are based on blockchains, decentralized peer-to-peer networks, or a combination. These applications are decentralized (DApps) in the Web 3.0 ecosystem.
👉 Applications constructed and deployed by Web 3.0 developers are often not restricted to a single server or database and are typically hosted and managed by a single cloud provider.
👉 To maintain a stable and secure decentralized network, network members (developers) are rewarded for providing the greatest quality services.
Where does Web3 fit in overall?
👉 Web3 entails correcting all the issues that emerged with Web 2.0. This next generation of the Internet focuses on changing the balance of power away from large tech corporations and toward ordinary consumers.
👉 Web3 is based on an ecosystem of decentralized, trustless, permissionless, and interoperable technological solutions.
👉 Instead of depending on a single centralized server, Web3 is based on blockchain-powered crypto networks that allow data to be stored globally among dispersed devices (also known as “nodes”).
👉 These dispersed devices may be anything, including desktops, laptops, and even larger servers.
👉 They function as the structure of the blockchain, connecting to allow data storage, distribution, and preservation without requiring a trusted third party to oversee the process.
👉 The blockchain offers an immutable record because of these nodes; it is a decentralized proof of ownership mechanism unlike anything ever seen. Users cannot pass up data to Google and Facebook because of Web 2.0.
👉 People were forced to depend on Amazon Web Services (AWS) for most online tools and services. Moreover, users needed faith that these parties would responsibly utilize this information.
👉 In addition, data can easily be used against users, which can have worldwide socio-political repercussions. The decentralized control of data and identity, often known as “self-sovereign identification,” is more critical than ever because of problems like these.
👉 This is accomplished using digital wallets, and like a physical wallet, a digital wallet acts as your Web3 identity by securely storing your cash and data.
👉 This wallet is interoperable, which allows you to pick which decentralized applications have access to your assets and to move them freely across the Internet.
👉 In addition, the blockchain’s transactions and exchanges may take place without the involvement of a trusted third party or “permissionless.”
👉 Currently, users must use their Facebook or Google login credentials to access several online programs, which compels them to give up their data. In Web3, however, people will control their identities.
👉 By replacing third parties with blockchain technology, Web3 enables new business models and value chains in which centralized intermediaries are no longer preferred. Instead, web3 reclaims control from intermediaries and returns it to people.
👉 This is already prevalently attributable to NFTs (non-fungible tokens). Subsequently, many artists, musicians, and creators have lately been experimenting with methods for receiving the lion’s share of their work’s money.
👉 This is mostly attributable to the functionality of smart contracts, which are predefined agreements put into a blockchain that execute automatically when certain conditions are satisfied.
👉 Specifically, with NFTs, smart contracts enable secondary royalty systems, meaning that artists get compensated whenever their work changes first-hand in the open market.
👉 Subsequently, this fundamental shift in the value chain, artists are earning more than ever, and the tragically accurate caricature of the “starving artist” is slowly transforming.
What Kenyans should know about Web3 and the Metaverse
👉 Even while “Web3” and “metaverse” are often used synonymously, this is not the correct use of either word. They are not equivalent in any way. The physical and digital worlds come together to form what is referred to as the metaverse.
👉 The proponents of the metaverse contend that such a future is unavoidable, and that people will one day spend most of their waking hours in a reality that is modified in some form. Furthermore, they believe that this will happen in the not-too-distant future.
👉 Recently, the concept has received a lot of popularity because Mark Zuckerberg, the creator of Facebook, has placed a significant bet on the metaverse by rebranding his social media firm “Meta.”
👉 The Web3 network is a decentralized version of the Internet that has nothing to do with boosting users’ perceptions of their actual surroundings. Web3 is not the metaverse, even though several
👉 Web3 protocols include peer-to-peer cryptocurrency transactions and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) that could be employed in the metaverse.
Web3 and Cryptocurrencies
👉 When discussing Web 3.0, you will regularly see references to cryptocurrencies. This is because several Web 3.0 protocols significantly depend on cryptocurrency.
👉 Instead, it gives a monetary incentive (tokens) to anybody who desires to assist in creating, governing, contributing to, or improving one of the projects. Web 3.0 tokens are digital assets linked with the concept of decentralizing the Internet.
👉 These protocols may offer many internet services, including computing, bandwidth, storage, identity, hosting, and others that cloud providers formerly supplied.
👉 For instance, the Ethereum-based Livepeer protocol facilitates a trade area for video hosting services and streaming software.
👉 Similarly, Helium uses blockchains and tokens to incentivize individuals and small companies to provide and validate wireless coverage and communicate device data throughout the network.
👉 People could make a livelihood via technical and non-technical participation in the protocol. In addition, users often pay to utilize the protocol, as they would pay a cloud service provider like Amazon Web Services.
👉 As with several types of decentralization, unnecessary and usually inefficient intermediates are removed. In addition, Web 3.0 will significantly depend on non-fungible tokens (NFTs), digital currencies, and other blockchain-based entities.
👉 For example, Reddit aims to break into the Web 3.0 space by creating a system to use cryptocurrency tokens to give people virtual ownership over portions of the online communities in which they engage.
👉 The premise is that users would utilize “community points,” which they would gain by contributing to a particular subreddit.
👉 The user then receives points depending on the number of people who upvote or downvote a certain post, representing a blockchain implementation of Reddit Karma.
👉 These points could be utilized as voting shares, enabling users who have made substantial contributions to the community to have a stronger voice in decisions that impact the community.
👉 Since the information about your points is recorded on a distributed ledger, you will have greater control over them.
👉 However, this is only one application of a Web 3.0 concept known as Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs), which employ tokens to divide ownership and decision-making power more equitably.
The Advantages of Web3 against Web 2.0 and Web 1.0
👉 As Web 3.0 removes the need for intermediaries, users retain ownership of their data. This reduces the risk of government or business censorship and denial-of-service (DoS) assaults.
👉 As more devices are linked to the Internet, larger datasets provide more information to assess algorithms. This will enable them to provide users with more accurate and personalized information for their specific needs.
👉 Before Web 3.0, locating the most sophisticated search engine result was difficult. However, they have improved their capacity to identify semantically relevant results based on the search context and information over time.
👉 Therefore, online surfing is made easier, enabling everyone to get the required information with reasonable simplicity.
👉 For websites and online apps, customer service is essential to provide a satisfying customer experience. Due to hefty costs, however, many successful online companies cannot grow their customer service operations.
👉 Due to Web 3.0, intelligent chatbots that can converse with several users concurrently may improve the user experience while interacting with customer service representatives.
The purpose of DAOs in Web3
👉 With this new value chain, Web3 has spawned new economic institutions. Interacting across the Web3 domain may be accomplished primarily via decentralized autonomous organizations or DAOs.
👉 A decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) is a collection of persons organized around a goal that “coordinates via a common set of rules enforced on a blockchain.”
👉 The major benefit of a DAO is that, unlike conventional corporations, the blockchain enables perfect transparency for DAOs.
👉 The DAO’s activities and financing may be seen and studied by anybody. This openness decreases the possibility of corruption and avoids the censorship of vital information. In addition, it assures that the DAO keeps its promise.
👉 This is because, like NFTs, DAOs are also governed by smart contracts that may trigger an action when certain criteria are satisfied. In the case of a DAO, for instance, a smart contract may guarantee that ideas receiving a particular number of positive votes are automatically implemented.
👉 And unlike typical top-down organizations, which all businesses and non-profits are, DAOs function with a flat hierarchical structure that gives all members a voice in key decisions that impact the larger group, instead of just the principal owners.
👉 In addition, DAOs are far more accessible to the ordinary person since the entrance hurdle is lower.
👉 Typically, only extraordinarily rich, well-connected individuals are permitted to participate in a company during its preliminary stages, and, therefore, they enjoy most of the financial gains.
👉 Not so in DAOs. They are worldwide accessible and much less expensive. Moreover, many cryptocurrency projects have a DAO structure since token holders often have a say in the project’s direction via a decentralized voting mechanism.
👉 DAOs have been used to crowdfund projects, manage communities, and even seek to purchase the United States Constitution.
What are Web3 Applications?
👉 Having a meaningful discussion on Web3 without at least mentioning decentralized applications (dApps) is impossible. Briefly, decentralized apps, often known as dApps, are the fundamental building blocks of the Web3 revolution.
👉 The promise that Web3 will make the Internet a more decentralized environment applies to the kinds of apps that could be utilized with Web3. To a significant extent, the following words are interchangeable with one another:
➡️ Web3 application
➡️ Web3 apps
➡️ Decentralized applications
➡️ Web3 dApps
👉 They are all referring to the decentralized apps built on blockchain technology that is a component of Web3. “Smart contracts” are essential to many decentralized applications (dApps) and Web 3 applications.
👉 The idea of a smart contract is not foreign to Kenyans, with some level of expertise working with blockchain technology. In their most basic form, smart contracts are computer programs that automatically conduct the terms of an agreement.
👉 These contracts take the form of individual lines of code executed on a distributed ledger, such as Ethereum’s.
👉 These will be “executed” or “run” automatically whenever the conditions are satisfied. Because of this, these “contracts” could automatically validate and conduct transactions between many parties.
👉 The usage of smart contracts by Web3 applications and decentralized applications (dApps) implies that the contracts’ logic may influence the apps’ behaviour.
👉 In practical terms, this eliminates the need for a particular business or person to serve as an intermediary.
👉 The Web3.js library allows developers to design clients or apps connecting with the Ethereum blockchain.
Components of Web3 Explained for Kenyans
👉 Web3 is a futuristic breakthrough powered by innovative technology like blockchain, machine learning, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and augmented reality.
👉 While web3 is superior to web2 in a few ways, the following features of web3 have the potential to revolutionize the current web landscape.
👉 Insufficient connection is one of the primary difficulties with Web 2. Web3 offers consumers a next-generation data networking experience using semantic metadata technology. Subsequently, users could concurrently connect to and obtain data from several data sources.
👉 In addition, web3 intends to make the Internet more accessible by creating breakthrough IoT sensor-based gadgets, therefore removing the Internet’s restriction on smartphones and PCs.
👉 The relationship between Web3 and virtual reality is currently being researched and understood. However, various methods exist to blend the two to create one-of-a-kind, immersive experiences.
👉 Web3 aims to make the Web more interactive and customized. It includes gathering data to customize information, using artificial intelligence to generate recommendations, and allowing users to interact directly with one another.
👉 The goal of virtual reality is to provide an immersive, realistic experience. Subsequently, Kenyans could create more personal and engaging experiences by combining Web3 with virtual reality than each one alone.
AI and ML
👉 Web3 is the next version of the World Wide Web, emphasizing data and its potential applications in improving human well-being. In the subsequent iteration of Web3, machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) will play important supporting roles.
👉 AI is about making computers smart enough to do things that humans do better today. Machine learning is an artificial intelligence subfield that focuses on teaching computers to learn from data. These technologies will collaborate to bring Web3 to life.
Robust Data Management
👉 Web3 is built atop a unique architecture for data management that employs advanced technologies such as blockchain and distributed peer-to-peer networks.
👉 Businesses must embrace a new method of data management and processing that corresponds to the open, transparent, and distributed characteristics of the web3 environment.
👉 Being or having the ability to be everywhere, particularly at the same time, is called ubiquity.
👉 When a Facebook member, for example, can snap a photo and post it online in a moment, making it accessible to anybody, everywhere, if they have an internet connection, it can safely be said that Web 2.0 is now omnipresent.
👉 The Internet will be available to anybody, at any time, from any location, thanks to Web 3.0, which advances this concept one step further.
👉 The proliferation of IoT (Internet of Things) technology will eventually mean that internet-connected gadgets are not limited to computers and smartphones, as was the case during Web 2.0.
👉 Web3, the third generation of the Internet, will usher in a drastic transformation from the existing two-dimensional Web to a more natural, immersive three-dimensional cyber environment.
👉 Three-dimensional design is widely used on Web3 websites and services in e-commerce, online gaming, and the real estate market. As strange as it may look, thousands of people worldwide are now engaged at this spot.
👉 The web3 ecosystem provides hyper-realistic 3D locations and graphical interfaces, allowing your Web 3.0 project to provide users with a more natural and vibrant navigational experience.
👉 Using Web 3.0’s metaverse and 3D capabilities, developers can develop enterprise-specific immersive games, e-commerce stores, and NFT marketplaces.
👉 The study of the link between words is known as semantic(s). Subsequently, the Semantic Web enables computers to evaluate massive amounts of data from the Web, such as content, transactions, and relationships between people.
👉 For example, if you say, “I love Pizza,” while someone else says, “I <3 Pizza,” the syntax is different, but the semantics are the same since semantics solely deals with the meaning or feeling of the material.
👉 By analysing data, semantics on the Web would allow robots to decipher meaning and emotions. Furthermore, internet users will enjoy a better experience due to improved data connection.
👉 Web3 is the next generation of web technology, and it has the potential to transform how Kenyans connect with the Internet. Edge computing is a new kind of computing that allows data and programs to be controlled locally rather than centrally.
👉 Because the two technologies have several characteristics, they are often discussed. Web3 and edge computing, for example, strive to make data and applications more accessible and user-friendly.
👉 Both may significantly reduce latency, or the time data travels from one site to another.
👉 There are some key differences between Web3 and edge computing. For starters, edge computing focuses on locally processing data, while Web3 is concerned with creating a decentralized internet.
👉 Furthermore, whereas edge computing is often used to supplement existing web infrastructure, Web3 is meant to replace it.
👉 Edge computing and Web3 are crucial modern technologies that have the potential to change how Kenyans use the Internet dramatically.
👉 Decentralized Web3 is an environment driven by decentralized blockchain technology.
👉 Subsequently, applications and solutions created on the web3 ecosystem are genuinely decentralized, including better security, functionality, the absence of censorship, and data authenticity.
The Best Crypto Brokers in Kenya
👉 This article lists the best brokers that offer Crypto CFD instruments and trading to traders in Kenya. In addition, we have further identified the brokers that offer additional services and solutions to Kenyan traders.
Best MetaTrader 4 / MT4 Crypto Broker in Kenya
Best MetaTrader 5 / MT5 Crypto Broker in Kenya
👉 Kenyans can trade several crypto CFDs across dynamic account types, with spreads from 45.7 pips on BTC/USD using the Raw Spread or Zero accounts.
Best Crypto Broker for beginners in Kenya
👉 Overall, XTB is the best Crypto broker for beginners in Kenya. XTB is a well-known and trusted STP broker that offers Kenyan beginners the use of a beginner-friendly xStation 5 platform and a range of educational materials offered through the Trading Academy.
👉 XTB provides one-on-one mentoring, resolute account managers, and several training materials and guides to guide traders through learning how to trade crypto CFDs.
Best Low Minimum Deposit Crypto Broker in Kenya
👉 In addition, for all deposits less than 9,000 USD, Kenyans need not verify the trading account.
Best ECN Crypto Broker in Kenya
Account Activation Time
👉 Overall, Pepperstone is the best ECN Crypto broker in Kenya. In addition, Pepperstone is the best low-cost ECN broker for Kenyans who want a choice between popular trading platforms such as MT4, MT5, and cTrader.
👉 Kenyans can start trading using the Standard Account and upgrade to the Razor Account once they have gained experience, allowing them access to 0.0 pip spreads and low commissions of 7 USD per trade.
Best Islamic / Swap-Free Crypto Broker in Kenya
USD 200 / 23320 KES
Account Activation Time
👉 Overall, easyMarkets is the best Islamic / Swap-Free Crypto broker in Kenya. easyMarkets allows Kenyan Muslim traders to convert a live account into a Swap-Free option.
👉 In addition, with easyMarkets, Kenyans can access a range of instruments and the benefits of several proprietary features.
👉 easyMarkets is well-known for offering guaranteed stop-loss orders, easyTrade, Freeze Rate, and several other benefits. easyMarkets also offers Kenyans access to MT4, MT5, TradingView, and a proprietary trading platform.
Best Crypto Trading App in Kenya
👉 Using the app, Kenyans can easily deposit and withdraw funds, enable one-click trading, and access all markets offered by FXTM traders.
Best Kenyan Shilling Trading Account Crypto Broker in Kenya
USD 1 / 116 KES
Account Activation Time
👉 Overall, SuperForex is the best Kenyan Shilling trading account Crypto broker in Kenya. In addition, SuperForex is one of the most versatile CFD and Forex brokers that offer 11 account options to Kenyans.
👉 The benefit is that Kenyans can easily trade crypto CFDs using the ECN Mini Standard Account, with spreads from 190 pips on BTC/USD and commissions from 0.75%.
Best Lowest Spread Crypto Broker in Kenya
👉 Overall, HFM is the best lowest spread Crypto broker in Kenya. For example, when Kenyans use HFM to trade crypto CFDs, they can expect spreads from as low as 0.1 pips on instruments such as XRP/USD, and several other popular instruments, which is competitively low when compared to other brokers.
Best NDD Crypto Broker in Kenya
Best STP Crypto Broker in Kenya
USD 100 / 11560 KES
MetaTrader 4, MetaTrader 5, Ava Social, Ava Protect, Trading Central
Account Activation Time
👉 AvaTrade does not offer variable spreads, and Kenyans can expect competitively low fixed spreads from 0.9 pips on popular instruments.
Best Sign-up Bonus Broker in Kenya
👉 The bonus is automatically credited, and Kenyans can withdraw all profits that they make from this bonus. Furthermore, XM also offers a 50% and 20% deposit bonus for initial and subsequent deposits, respectively.
Disadvantages of trading platforms
👉 Some platforms also have some drawbacks of traders in Kenya should take note of in order to mitigate their risk of losses:
➡️ Fees – There are fees associated with nearly every transaction you make on a forex exchange, from funding your account to trading currencies and withdrawing currencies back into a bank account.
➡️ Forex brokers are businesses that seek to protect their bottom line. They sometimes choose to stay in business through clever methods that skim much more than necessary off their customers.
➡️ Scam Risk – Some brokers may take your money willingly but will be much more hesitant to return it to you.
➡️ Some brokers have convoluted terms and conditions meant to confuse and stifle your efforts to withdraw your money or are outright scams that only become apparent once you’ve tried to withdraw.
👉 Web3 is a futuristic idea, although it is still in its early phases and has yet to grow. Nevertheless, many sectors have begun to deploy web3 use cases to remodel their company infrastructure and transition to web3 architecture.
👉 Two of the most prominent examples of Web3 refer to DAOs and the Metaverse, and these can easily assist enterprises in realizing their full commercial potential. With the passage of time and the advancement of technology, new web3 use cases will emerge to address current business inefficiencies.
What is Web3 in Ethereum?
Decentralized Ethereum applications are referred to as Web3. In other words, they are applications where Kenyans can interact freely without worrying about their data being sold.
What do Web3 developers do?
Instead of relying on a single cloud server, the applications developed by Web3 developers are dispersed throughout a blockchain or decentralized P2P network that is not managed by any one entity.
Is Web 3.0 the future in Kenya?
Yes, Web 3.0 is the future globally. Web 3.0 is the subsequent version of the Internet, which will depend heavily on blockchain technology, cryptocurrencies, and, most crucially, the decentralized concept.
What is an example of Web 3.0 in Kenya?
An example of basic Web3 applications becoming more widespread is companies using AI-based chatbots, allowing businesses to provide 24/7 support.
In addition, more businesses are relying on AI-based Web 3.0 advertising, allowing them to effectively market their services to clients.
What is Web3 crypto in Kenya?
Web3 cryptocurrencies are a new generation aimed at realizing the decentralized Web3 goal.
They use blockchain technology with smart contracts to offer individuals ownership over their data and let them conduct transactions independently of third parties.